Essequebo and Demerary Gazette 1807 December 05


Ao. 1807 )


Essequebo and Demerary


( No. 258.

Saturday, the 5th of December.

Rio Demerary. [heading]
Just Landing from on board the ship Duke of Kent, James Dougall, Master, and for Sale by the Subscribers, at the House lately occupied by John Madden, Esq. the following Articles, for immediate Payment in Cash, or Produce at Cash Price:
[first column]
Mahogany Dining Tables, with D ends, and each a spare leaf, slip hinges, fasteners, &c.
Do. Pembroke do.
Do. Sideboards with column feet, garde de vin, plate & linen drawers
Do. Vase Knife Cases, inlaid and varnished, each containing 1 dozen Spoons, 1 do. Knives and Forks, Carvers, Gravy Spoons, &c.
Do. Camp Desks, with brass corners, furnished with Shaving Instruments
Do. with private drawers
Do. Chairs with satin bottoms
Do. painted, & ornamented with gold, cane seats
Do. do. do. and varnished
Do. Bedsteads, with Mattrasses, Bolsters, and Pillows complete
Elegant Pier Glasses with pillar'd frames
Oval Dressing Glasses
Views of British Scenery with burnished gilt frames and glazed
Death of Lord Nelson
Venus by Westall
Silver Ladles & Tea Spoons
Plated Cruet Frames with silver edges
Best plated Candlesticks with bright Snuffers and trays
Shade Snuffers
Bread Baskets, Tea Trays & Caddies, Waiters, &c.
Painted Paper with flock border
French Organs
Bird do. with 10 pipes
Magic Lanterns, &c.
Wagdon's Pistols in mahogany cases
Elegant Fowling Pieces, gold bushed, in cases
Best Double Glazed Powder in canisters
Patent Shot assorted
Gun and Pistol Flints
Yorkshire Hams, small sizes
Double Gloucester Cheese
London Bottled Porter
Irish Mess Beef in barrels & half barrels
Do. Pork in do. and do.
Tongues and Tripe in kegs
Red and White Herrings in kits
Oysters and Anchovies
Pease, Barley, Oatmeal, and Groats
Ling Fish
Table Salt in baskets
Pickles assorted
Sauces do.
Double Distill'd Vinegar
Salad Oil
Refined Sugar
Raisins, Almonds, Prunes, &c.
Seltzer Water
Cherry & Raspberry Brandy
Cogniac do.
Old Port and Madeira Wine
Stoughton's Elixir
Paints assorted
Paints and Lamp Oil
Spirits of Turpentine
Temper Lime
Bandanna do.
French Bairns
Small Trunks containing Tapes, Threads, Pins, Needles, &c.
Gentlemen's Hunting Saddles
[second column]
Copper Skimmers & Ladles
Do. Boiling House Lamps
Brass Wire Sugar Strainers
Copper Funnels and Starting Cranes
Proof Bubbles
Iron Hoops and Rivets
Wood Hoops
Coffee Manaries
Sheet Copper
Spindles awith turned bearings
Handles with Cotterils
Brasses & Screw Bolts for do.
Hoes, Shovels, Cutlasses, & Pruning Knives
Nails from 4d. to 30d.
Pump Tacks
Cotton and Coffee Bagging
Negro Clothing, &C.
Gentlemen's Fashionable Coats, Vests, & Pantaloons
Best Silk Braces, with double springs
Hessian & Back Strap Boots
Back Strap do. with Yellow Tops
High Shoes with side buckles
Dress do. London made
Gentlemen's Shirts of various qualities
Do. Black and Drab Patent Silk Hats
Do. do. and do. Beaver do. very large
Boat Cloaks
Ladies' Patent Silk Hats
Do. Split Straw Bonnets
Oval top tortoiseshell Combs
Ladies' Leno and Muslin Habit Shirts
Do. with pink lace sleeves
Do. Silk, Fawnskin, and Venetian Beaver Gloves
Do. nankeen and Slate coloured Jean Half Boots, foxed with leather
Do. Morocco Shoes with thick fashionable soles, best London made
Do. Sandals and Kid Shoes with buckles, silk Roses and Tassels
Do. and Gentlemen's Silk & Cotton Hose, whie and flesh coloured, with embroidered clocks
Check and Fancy Parasols
Green Silk and Lutestring Umbrellas
Gentlemen's Short Stockings
Children's Hats, Half Boots, and Shoes
Servants' Glazed Hats with gold and silver bands
Irish Linen and Sheeting
Table Cloths and Napkins
Platillas Royal
Cotton Counterpanes
Do. Hammocks
Do. Night Caps
Buff, Lilac, and Pink Check
Cotton Stripes
Plain and Corded Dimities
Light Fancy Printed Calicoes, newest fashions
Plain and Printed Cambrics
Cambric Dimities
Inida Jeans
Fancy Muslins
Fine Chambray, pink and figured
Pink Figured Satin Gown Patterns
Black Florentien
Marseilles Quilting
Green Buntings
Superfine Navy Blue Cloth
Superfine Black Cloth
Do. Pocket Handkerchiefs
Double Rein Bitt & Bridoon Bridles
Do. Bitt and Curb do.
Spare Pannels for Saddles
Do. Reins for Bridles
Fly Hoods
Nests of Red Leather Trunks.
[end columns]
Stationary, Perfumery, Cutlery, Tin, Glass, & Queen's Ware, and sundry other Articles.
Dec. 5, 1807. Charles & John Ryan
N.B. Any of the above Articles will be sold reasonable by the package.

NOW ON SALE, [heading]
The following Goods, being the Remainder of the CARGO of the Good Intent, Capt. Stuveng, lately arrived from London:
BEEF and Pork, in tierces, barrels, and half barrels, of the very best Quality, having been put up for the East India market.
Madeira Wines, Best London Particular, (warranted) in pipes, hhds. and quarter casks
[first column]
Brandy in pipes
Cherry Brandy in cases
Raspberry Brandy in do.
Pearl Barley in kegs
Split Pease in do.
Tripe in do.
Pickles in boxes, with locks and keys
Fish sauce, ketchup, co-ratch, &c. in do.
Capers in do.
Vinegar (best double distilled White Wine) in jugs
Dutch Salmon in butts
Dutch dry'd Vegetables in tin boxes
Do. Sauer Crout in kegs
Oats in hhds.
Candles (best mould) assorted
Soap in 28 lb. boxes
A complete assortment of Medicines
Do. of Perfumery
Do. of Stationary
Do. of Sadlery
Do. of Cutlery
Wearing Apparel (Gentlemen's fashionable London made)
Boots and Shoes, do.
[second column]
Hats, Beaver & Leghorn, do.
A complete Assortment of Ladies' and Gentlemen's Stockings
Gentlemen's ready-made Shirts
Irish Linens (a large assortment of)
Calico Shirtings do.
Cambrics do.
Muslins do.
Pullicats do.
Printed Cottons do.
Negro Clothing do.
Sailors do.
Osnaburgs do.
Coffee and Cotton Bagging do.
Twines, Fishing Lines, &c.
Mattrasses, Pillows, Bolsters
Portable Writing Desks
Cordage in coils for Colonial Craft
Best Stockholm Tar & Pitch
Wood Hoops, long & short
Terras, best Dutch (warranted) in puncheons
Nails in kegs assorted
A few Fowling Pieces and Cases of Pistols
Gunpowder, &c.
[end columns]
Apply to the Captain on board, or to the Supergargo at the New Store, Robb's Stelling, facing the River. John Nicol.
Stabroek, Dec. 5, 1807.

FOR LONDON, [heading]
The Good Intent, Cornelious Stuveng Commander, Burthen 160 Tons, new coppered, and mounts 12 carriage guns, is now ready to take on board (Coffee only), and will positively sail on the 15th January, having great part of her Cargo engaged. For Freight or Passage, apply to the Captain on board, or to the Subscriber on Robb's Stelling.
Stabroek, Dec. 5, 1807. John Nicol.

FOR LONDON, [heading]
The Brig Alert, Wm. Delday Master, a Firm British-built Vessel. For Freight or Passage, apply to the Master on board, or to
Underwood, Johnson, & Co.
Stabroek, Dec. 4, 1807.

FOR LIVERPOOL, [heading]
To sail about the Middle of January next, [heading]
The ship Mary, William Stringer Master,
The ship Queen, John Mares Master, both British built, coppered ships, and well armed.
For Freight or Passage, apply to the Masters on board, or to Underwood, Johnson, & Co.
Dec. 4, 1807.

Just Imported in the schooner Ann, from Baltimore, and for Sale by
Underwood, Johnson, & Co.
Dec. 4, 1807.

Den Ondergeteekende verzoekt van den Heer Th. Duim te rug te hebben zyn Procuratie, als meede alle andere papieren dien by [hy?] van hem, onder zich mogt hebben.
Dec. 5, 1807. Jno. Arians.

The Subscriber offers for Sale his Lot No. 46, in Kingston, with the Buildings thereon, at present occupied by himself.
The Dwelling House, of Hard Wood Frame, is 42 feet long, and (including a Gallery the whole length) 26 feet wide. The First Floor is divided into a spacious Hall and Chamber, with a roomy Passage, leading into a Portico. The upper part is large enough for three good Chambers, and, underneath, is a very commodious Cellar, to which there is an adjoining Water Shed.
There are two convenient Out Buildings; one in good repair, consisting of Pantry, Kitchen, and Horse Stable; the other entirely new, divided into two good Rooms. There is also a Bathing House, with conveniencies, and a good Necessary.
The whole Lot is enclosed, and part laid out in a Garden; the Premises forming, on the whole, a pleasant and complete Residence for a family.
The price fixed is very moderate, and the terms will be made easy to a good Purchaser, who can have possession immediately.
Kingston, Dec. 5, 1807. R. Ramsay,
Who will dispose of a clever Carpenter Negro, chiefly accustomed to House Framing

All Persons having Demands against the Estate of the late Dr. James Crawfurd, are desired to render the same in to the Undersigned, on Plantation Zara's Hope, within Three Weeks from the Date hereof, in order that he may proceed to adjust the affairs of the deceased.
G. W. Deboekhurst [De Boekhurst?], Executor.
Dec. 5, 1807.

FOR SALE, [heading]
A Strong Healthy Mare, which has been Two Years in the Country, and is accustomed to both Saddle and Chaise. She is warranted sound, and is sold for no fault whatever. Price 25 Joes Cash, or an approved Obligation at Three Months. Apply to the Printer.

On Monday the 14th instant, at the store of Thomas Finlayson, Esq. Robb's Stelling, Irish prime mess beef and pork, candles, soap, cogniac brandy, Hollands gin, Madeira wine, tea, refined sugar, black pepper, fine and coarse Irish linen and sheeting, diaper table cloths and towelling, checks, brown Holland, puncheon iron hoops, &c.
Dec. 4, 1807.
On Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, the 28th, 29th, and 30th instant, by order of I. H. L. Maurenbrecher, Esq. on the large Logie of R. B. Daly, Esq. a considerable quantity of Prime Provisions, imported in the Queen (see Advert. of Messrs. R. B. Daly and G. van Harpen in the supplement to this paper.)
Dec. 5, 1807.
On Thursday the 31st instant, at the store of Messrs. Jas. Lyon and Co. Irish linen, diaper and table cloths, sheeting, brown linen, dowlas, cotton shirting, thread, elegant furniture chintz, silk and cotton stockings, hats, boots and shoes, buckskin gloves, ladies' straw bonnets, muslin handkerchiefs, fine linen pocket do. blue and black cassimere, flannels, platillas, a quantity of tin and hard ware, blue [sic], saddles and bridles, chaise whips, spare stirrup leathers and girths, curry combs and brushes, shads, mackarel, fish in hhds. butter, pease, and barley, loaf sugar, hyson and gunpowder tea, black pepper, mustard, pickles, soap, wax, spermaceti, and mould candles, lamp oil, tar, pitch, paint and paint oil, ready-made clothes, blocks and grapnels, boxes of bubbles, white rope, canvas, a quantity of phials of different sizes, nails, corks, and many other articles.
Dec. 5, 1807.
On Friday the 8th January 1808, at the Vendue Office, by order of Wm. Latham, Esq. the half lot of land No. 6, situated in Kingston, with all the buildings thereon, consisting of a dwelling house 24 feet by 16, a range of out buildings 60 feet in length, also a Colony frame two stories high, covered with Wallaba shingles, 15 feet by 10, the whole paled in and paved, with a pleasant garden, &c. The quarter lot of land, more or less, No. 27, situated in the same street, consisting of a dwelling house 24 feet by 16, the frame of Colony wood covered with Wallaba shingles, with convenient out buildings all in good order. The half lot of land No. [blank] situated in the same town, with a side building 24 feet by 12, also a frame of hard wood laying in the same lot, 28 feet by 18, one and half story high. The half lot of land No. 89, situated on the North dam of Stabroek with the dwelling house, 36 feet by 12, one and half story high, new out buildings 30 feet by 11, of hard wood. Also a Colony built tent boat and punt, can be seen at the logie of Adam Knight deceased.
On the same day and place, by order of Philip Cambridge, Esq. the lease of a piece of land No. 12, situated in the middle street, front of Plantation Vlissingen, with the buildings thereon, at present occupied by Joseph Taylor, Esq. Also, some valuable negroes, &c. Also on the same day, the half lot of land, No. 89, fronting the Brick Dam, Stabroek, with the buildings thereon consisting of a comfortable dwelling house, raised 6 feet from the ground, out buildings, oven, &c. all in good repair.
Dec. 5, 1807.

Krachtens sententie van den Edele Achtbaare Hove van Justitie, d.d. 17 November, l.l.
Zo maakt den Ondergeteekende aan een ygely bekend dat hy ten overstaan van Heeren Raaden Commissarissen en den Secretaris den Achste December aanstaande [?]ien Raadhuise op de Hoofdplaatse Stabroek, publicq by Executie zal opvylen ers verkoopen, ten behoeven van Thos. Cuming triumphant en ook andere meede gedeeltelyk daartoe gerechtigd contra Thos. Frier zekere Concessie Lands geleegen op de voorgrond van Plantage Vlissingen No. 35 mit alle de huysinge daaropstaande, bestaande in een woonhuys, twee zy gebouwen, een pakhuys, combuis, een Smits winkel, en laatstelyk een gemackhuysje.
Iemanad in 't voorengenoemde gading vinden zal, kome ten dage en plaatse voornemd, en doen zyn profyt.
Rio Demerary, den 3 Dec. 1807 M. Smit,
Zeg t voort. Eerste Exploiteur.

Uit krachte van zekere Appoinctement de dato 14 Nov. 1807, verleend door den wel Edele Gestr. Heer en Mr. V. A. Heyliger, fungeerend President van den Edele Achtbaare Hove van Justitie deeser Colony.
Worden hiermeede voor de Eerste Maal by Edicte
Uit naam en van weegens C. N. Bollers, in qualiteit als met en benevens Jan George Bollers, Executeuren Testamentair ten boedel en Nalatenschap wylen derselver Moeder Anna Barbara Haus Weduwe wylen M. Bollers,
Alle bekende en onbekende Crediteuren van den Boedel wylen M. Bollers en Anna Barbara Haus egte lieden, als meede die van derselven nagelaten en onder de jurisdictie deeser Colonie geleegen Plantage Pattenson
Domme te compareeren voor den Edele Achtbaaren [sic] Hove van Justitie, zittende op de Hoofdplaatse, Stabroek, teegens den 18 January eerstkomende, en volgende dagen,
Ten einde te komen opgeeven hunne pretentien mits dagers te dienen van de selver sustenuen.
Zullende na afloop der Vier Edictaale Citatien teegens de non comparanten worden geprocedeerd om 't euwig silentium te obtineeren.
Rio Demerary, den 27 November 1807
D. P. Simon, Exploiteur.

List of Runaway and Arrested Slaves [not transcribed]

Secretary's Office. This is to inform the Public, that the following Persons intend quitting this Colony:
Ann Wollard, in 10 days, from Nov. 20.
James Brown, in 14 days, from Nov. 21.
Philip Yates, in 14 days, from 28 Nov. [sic]
Arch. M'Guffie, in 14 days, from Dec. 1.
Newton Stevens and Eber Potter, in do. from 5th do.
Dec. 5, 1807. J. C. Stadtman, first Clerk.

Wordt mits deeze van wegens het Secretary alhier aan elk en een iegelyk bekend gemaakt, dat de Heer James Fraser zyn Domicilium Citandi et Executandi gekoosen heest in Capoey Creek, Essequebo
Demerary, den 5 December 1807.
J. C. Stadtman, Eerste Clercq.

Absconded, a few days ago, from the Undersigned, a Negro named Bill. well known about town. Whoever will apprehend and lodge him in the Barracks, shall receive Two Joes Reward. John Laforey Morson.
December 5, 1807.

Lately imported by the ship Queen, Captain J. Mares, and now landing, a considerable quantity of Provisions, &c the particulars of which may be seen in the first Advert of the present supplement; which will be Sold by Public Venude, on the 28th inst. and following days, in the Logie of R. B. Daly, Esq. In the mean while they may be had, parcels or assortments, by applying to R. B. Daly, at his Dwelling, or G. Van Harpen, at Plantation Providence. - Dec. 5, 1807

Vessels Entered and Cleared Since Our Last.


Dec. 2. Brig Mary Ann, F. Dyer, from Alexandria.


Nov. 30. Brig Betsey, W. Hart, for Belfast.
Dec. 4. Schooner Mary, N. Brown, for Wilmington.

We have no room for "Georgia Training."

In addition to the numerous Articles for Sale by Mr. James Robertson (see Supplement), we have to mention Mess Beef and Pork in whole and half barrels, the order for which came too late for us to insert in the proper place

His Majesty's brig Demerara, Capt. Shepherd, returned from a cruise on Thursday evening, during which, we are happy to say, she had the good fortune to capture, by means of the boats she took with her, viz. the pinnace belonging to the Mary Guineaman, and the boat of Messrs. Williams and Ashley, the celebrated Spanish Launch, which has been doing so much mischief lately on the Coast. The Demerara, about eight or ten days ago, had discovered a schooner privateer to leeward, which she chased but could not come up with. Captain Shepherd then ordered the boats close in shore, under the command of Lieut. Gould, in which direction they had not gone long, when they saw the launch. The Spaniards endeavoured all they could to get away, and it thought they might have succeeded, but for the superior sailing of the pinnace, which came up off Wyma Creek, and kept them at bay till the other boat arrived. The Spaniards then hoisted their colours and made a desperate resistance, not surrendering until there were nine killed and wounded. It is not exactly known how many the crew consisted of, as several jumped overboard, and might have been killed in the water; 6 were known to be killed outright, and three wounded; among the latter of whom were the Captain (who died, from a shot in the lower part of his belly, about half an hour after he was shifted on board the Demerary [sic]), the gunner (shot by a musket ball in the head while in the act of putting a match to a 6-pounder which was pointed at the boats), not expected to live, and another, now on board the Demerara, and 16 were marched into the Colony barracks yesterday. Of these 14 appear to be coloured men, one Spaniard quite a lad, and a strapping negro, who says he is a native of Martinique, but who is believed by some to be a runaway from this colony. The launch is a droll looking vessel, she seems like a cane built upon, carries on 6-pounder in her bow, and 2 swivels, and is the same that took Mr. Hubbard's boat, The crew denied having any connection with the schooner privateer. none of the Demerara's people were hurt.

We are sorry to have to state, that a letter has been received from Barbados by a Gentleman of this town, which mentions that a cartel had arrived there from Guadaloupe, with an account of the running ships Juno, Capt. M'Murray, and Elliot, Capt. London, which sailed hence in October last, having been taken and carried into that island.

By the Advertisement in our First Page it will be seen that Messrs. C. & J. Ryan have taken Mr. Madden's elegant and convenient House for the display and sale of their valuable and large Assortment of Articles just received by the Duke of Kent. The list is undoubtedly as splendid and choice as any we have before printed; but there are a few singularities which particulaarly struck us. We find, among the Wearing Apparel, fashionable Coats, coatees, vest, Pantaloons, Shirts, Boots, Shoes, &c. in abundance; but there are no Ready made Coats, Ready-made Coatees, Ready made Vests, Ready made Pantaloons, Ready-made Shirts, Ready-made Boots and Shoes, &c. mentioned!!! And yet we are informed that Messrs. C. & J. Ryan are natives of that part of the United Kingdom said to be famous for exporting Ready-made Bulls

Monday being St. Andrew's Day, was celebrated with much glee by a party of his sons at the New Union Coffee House.

Died. On Sunday night, at the house of her son (Wm. King, Esq.) North Dam, Stabroek, much regretted, Mrs. Ann King.

LINES [heading]
TO THE MEMORY OF [heading]
(One of the Heroes of Maida, and Brother to J. C. M'Leod, Esq. late Member of the Hon. Court of Justice of this Colony,)
Who fell on the 19th of April 1807, covered with wounds, while gloriously sustaining the honour of the British Flag against the Turks, near Rosetta, in Egypt.
What child of despair, on the wings of the wind,
So mournfully warbles the woes of mankind?
'Tis the Bird of the Desart [sic], it comes from afar,
And its talons are red with the signs of the war!
Weep, weep, Caledonia! and number the stain,
The plumes of thy mountains are trod to the plain,
The sand of El Hamet are glutted with gore.
And the proud crested native exiles on the shore
But who is that Youth on the desart laid low,
The laurels of Maida entwining his brow?
Th' illustrious Chief of a well chosen band,
Who no more shall return to his dear native land.
Ah! weep for the hero! weep over his grave,
The tears of their country are due to the brave,
Who fearless encounter the legions of death,
And prove true to the last of their blood & their breath.
All hail, brave M'Leod! tho' we bid thee adieu,
Thy worth and thy valour shall live in our view;
The round hopes of youth have expir'd with life's flame,
But thy glory shall rise in the records of Fame!

Mr. Editor,
I cannot refrain expressing my opinion of the very reprehensible language circulated in the colony through the medium of the newspaper published by Mr. Henery. I am more shocked at the abuse when I read in the same publication, that "it is evident Ministers have determined upon conciliatory measures with America!" Surely the sentiments of an individual, who cannot speak dispassionately of the interests of Friendly Nations, are not fit to be disseminated in a flourishing settlement, where, to its honour, national prejudices are daily decreasing. Can "turbulent virulence," - "rebellious declaration of independence," - be consistent with courtesy? When the immortal Chatham defended the Rights of America - when the Lion of Great Britain reluctantly fought against her - and a phalanx of Patriots strove on her side - are we to be told that her immeasurable domains ought still to be dependent? I will recommend to the writer, if he is desirous of assisting the cause of our country, to preserve, in his future lucubrations, some decency towards States and Sovereigns.
Demerary, Dec. 1, 1807. Urban.

To the Printer of the Essequebo and Demerary Gazette. [heading]
Sir – It had not been my intention to write upon the subject of the present Comet, until I had more maturely considered the circumstance attending its motion, and made further and more accurate deductions from the observations I have already taken; but the very erroneous remarks contained in last week's paper, signed Philo, have induced me to write the following, in order to undeceive the public and for the satisfaction of the scientific. My reason for making my real name public is, that I find it to be the general opinion that I was the author of Philo's dissertation.
This Comet was first observed here about the 21st of September. Its right ascension in time was 13 & half hours, its northern amplitude, 12 deg.; it was then ascending from the Sun at a mean rate of 1 deg. 30m. 15s. in 24 hours, which is but about half the motion Philo gives it.
Philo observes, in Mr. Henery's paper, that the plane of its orbit is inclined to the plane of the ecliptic at an angle of 40 deg.; in Mr. Bond's 12 deg. It is not material which he intends, as the angle in question is 61 deg. 55m. 20s. The ascending node of this Comet, or place where it crosses the Earth's orbit, is in Libra 29 deg. It was in this point on the 16th Sept.
Although very dim, it may still be discerned by the naked eye, a little N.E. of Vega, a bright star of the first magnitude, in the Constellation Lyra. Its right ascension being 18 h. 50 m. and declination 38 deg. 10 m. N.
Philo tells us that the Comet, on the 24th of September, was between the orbs of Mars and Venus. Now he might as well have attempted to describe the place of an island in the Atlantic by saying it was situated between Cape Horn and East Greenland; for the orb of Mars includes both that of the Earth and Venus. But with all this latitude he is not within the mark. If his meaning be that the Comet was between the orbs of Venus and the Earth, he is very erroneous, and yet more so if he mean between the Earth's and Mars'; for it was then far within the orb of Venus, and nearer that of Mercury. It is not yet near the distance of mars, although Philo supposes it to be far removed from our system. It is Philo's opinion, that the nucleus of this Comet is fully the size of our Earth, consequently, larger than Venus, and its distance, when it crossed our orbit, 16,000,000 English miles. Now Venus's mean distance is 27,000,000 English miles: then, if larger than Venus, and at little more than half the distance, it should have appeared twice as large as Venus; but, on the contrary, the apparent diameter of its nucleus was only one quarter that of Venus. How will Philo reconcile this?
It has had no perceptible diurnal parallax; but its annual parallax in September was greater than the annual parallax of mercury, and less than that of Venus; thence it is evident, the Comet was then between the orbs of Mercury and Venus; and being not long before that in perihelion, we may compute its perihelion distance from the Sun to be about equal to Mercury's distance from that luminary, or 465 diameters of the Earth; and not as expressed by a Gentleman in Barbados, who says it passed its perihelion within two diameters of the Earth of the Sun's center. Any one my perceive the absurdity of this assertion, when he considers that the Sun's diameter is equal to 95 diameters of the Earth; therefore, according to him, the Comet must have passed through the body of the Sun.
When at nearly the distance of Mercury, its nucleus subtended an angle about one quarter that of Venus: then, judging upon the ratio of visible diameters, we may compute its bulk to be about one third that of our Earth.
The Gentleman who wrote of this Comet in Barbados, seems highly delighted at a report of Venus having been eclipsed on a certain night, and takes it for a decisive proof of his former assertion, that the Comet was on this side of the orb of Venus. Now the angle under which the nucleus of this Comet was seen, in maximum, was not one third equal to that of Venus; therefore, the nucleus could not eclipse Venus. And the tails of all Comets are so transparent that the stars are clearly seen through them: Venus appears brighter than the stars do; ergo, it is impossible she could be obscured by the vapour of the Comet's tail. Beside, had that Gentleman known the path of the Comet, and consequently its place in the heavens at that time, and the place of Venus, he would have found them several degrees asunder: Venus was in Southern and the Comet in Northern latitude. The fact is, there was no known body in the vicinity of Venus at the time that was capable of eclipsing her; and if she was actually observed, it could proceed from nothing but the intervention of some dense aerial vapours, the production of our atmosphere.
The method I employed for determining the figure of the orbit of this Comet, and the period of its revolution in that orbit, was, by observing its distance from two fixed stars at three different moments of time, the interval between each observation being 15 days, and taking those three places of the Comet for points through which to describe the Comet's trajectory or path round the Sun. This method was taught by Sir Isaac Newton, and is founded on that problem of his for drawing a curve through any number of given ordinates. Sir Isaac pronounces it to be the most accurate way that can be employed for finding the path of a body moving in an elliptical orbit; although, as he justly observes, it is a very difficult, and we may add tedious, process. This trajectory came out an ellipsis, approaching somewhat to a parabola, whose conjugate and transverse diameters were in proportion nearly 1 to 6*; and the periodical time of its revolution in this trajectory, 82 years and 13 days. Consequently, it cannot be the same Comet that was observed by Sir I. Newton in 1680, as asserted both by the Gentleman in Barbados, and very positively by Philo. It is difficult to conceive from what those learned Gentlemen could receive that opinion, as this Comet is unlike that of 1680 in every circumstance that can be named. The nearest agreement is in the inclination of their orbits, and in this they differ nearly 2 deg. Beside, that Comet was most accurately observed, and its period ascertained to a greater degree of certainty than the period of any other Comet whatever; and that, by the greatest Mathematicians and Astronomers that ever lived, as Sir Isaac Newton, Flamsteed, Halley, Cassini, Hevelius, and many others. The trajectory of that Comet, and the periodical time of its revolution, was calculated by Sir I. Newton in the manner just mentioned of the present Comet, and its period thereby found to be 575 years: therefore, the Comet of 1680 cannot appear again till the year 2255.
The tail of the present Comet has not measured more than 8 deg. that of 1680 extended upwards of 60 deg. After all this, since Philo is so positive, he is requested, as is the Gentleman in Barbados, from whom Philo seems to have taken most of his opinions, to make good their assertions, and prove, on astronomical principles, what they have vaguely sated - that this is the same Comet which appeared in 1680 and its period 64 years. If Philo finds himself able to do this, we may expect to see his demonstrations in next week's Gazette, or, since it is an intricate subject and requires thought, in the Gazette succeeding.
The squares of the periodical times of the planets are to each other as the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun, and the same analogy takes place in Comets. Therefore, the mean distance of a Comet may be found by comparing its period with the time of the Earth's revolution round the Sun. Thus, as 1, the square of 1 year, the Earth's periodical time, is to 6724 the square of 82, the Comet's periodical time; so is 1,000,000 the cube of 100 the Earth's mean distance from the
*A near delineation of its orbit may be traced in the following easy manner: Put two pegs into a board, 12 inches asunder; tie together the two ends of a thread, so that its length shall be when double 12 1/8th inches. Place the thread over the two pegs, and with a small pencil within the thread, keeping it equally stretched, describe the elliptic curve, which will represent the orbit of the present Comet; and one of the pegs may represent the place of the Sun in the lower focus of the orbit.
Sun, to 6,724,000,000, the cube of the Comet's mean distance from the Sun; in such parts as the Earth's mean distance contains 100: equal to about 19 times the Earth's distance from the Sun, or 226.651 diameters of the Earth. Its perihelion distance, as already noticed, was 465 diameters of the Earth. Now, if from double the mean distance, viz. 453,302, we take the perihelion distance 465, we shall have the aphelion or greatest dist [sic] 452,837. So that this Comet travels nearly four times the distance from the sun that Saturn does. Any one who understands Conics will be able, from the foregoing conclusions, to project the path of this Comet at leisure.
Whoever lives so long may again see this Comet in the latter part of the year 1889 or beginning of 1890. It will probably arrive at its ascending node about the 1st of October, and will begin to be seen in the evening a few degrees eastward of the Sun. In looking over Halley's Collection of the Elements of Comets, I do not find one on record that corresponds in any one respect with the present; either in regard to its obliquity with the ecliptic, the place of its ascending node, the place of its perihelion, the length of its tail, or the perihelion distance from the Sun. Thence we may infer that hitherto it has been unobserved by Astronomers, or their observations have not been preserved.
Various have been the conjectures concerning the nature of these wandering luminaries. In ancient times they were considered ominous, presaging dreadful calamities, as pestilence, wars, famine, &c. Even the sagacious Kepler, by a strange imagination, believed them to be huge and monstrous animals, generated in the celestial spaces, and who swam about the Sun by means of certain fins acting upon the etherial fluid, as those of fishes do in water. A still more ridiculous opinion, if possible, was that of John Bodin, a learned French man of the 16th century. He maintained they were spirits, that having lived upon the Earth for innumerable ages, are recalled to the firmament like shining stars; that some were benign, others malignant; the former brought health to the inhabitants of the Earth - the latter, sickness.
Sir I. Newton and the later Astronomers assert that the Comets are solid, compact, durable substances, capable of sustaining such a degree of heat as would vitrify or dissipate any substance known to us. That they are surrounded by enormous atmospheres, which, rarified by the intense heat of the Sun, form their luminous tails. They assign them a more useful purpose than the forementioned, viz. of bringing back an electrical fluid to the planets, and becoming fuel for the Sun: to corroborate which, they adduce the dark spots that are often seen on the Sun's disk; these they take to be comets, drawn by the power of the Sun's attraction into his body. Many believe that the projectile force of the Comets in perihelion, together with the attractive influence of the neighbouring planets, may induce them to quit their orbits entirely, and wander promiscuously in the expanse of ether. The latter opinion, however, appears not to be well founded; especially when we attend to the appearances exhibited by the present Comet: its motion having been very uniform, and it having preserved its elliptical course, not perceptibly altered, since its first became visible, although it has passed in the vicinity or same hemisphere with the Sun, Saturn, Venus, Mars, and Mercury; those four planets being near the Sun at the time of its perihelion. The visible part of its course is that most liable, from its nearness to the Sun and planets, to the influence of its gravitating and increased centrifugal force; that might incline it either to fall into the Sun or be carried off in a straight line, or one of these curves that do not return into themselves; which would actually be the consequence, did it move in either an exact parabolic or hyperbolic curve. But having retained, unaltered, its elliptical course amidst those deviating causes, there can be no reason to apprehend the probability of its deserting it afterwards, when the causes of deviation are so much less considerable. Some eminent Astronomers imagine that our Earth cannot for ever escape an approach or collision of some one of this numerous class of bodies; by which event it would be utterly demolished, or reduced to its supposed original chaos.
No doubt can be entertained of the effect, should such a collision actually take place; ignited as most of the Comets are, and moving with the rapid velocity they do, in the lower focus of their orbits. But perhaps it would be more rational to conclude that that Omnipotent Being, who first impelled those bodies into motion, hath also duly provided for their future adjustment, and the preservation of their original harmony.
John Hancock, Surgeon.
Monday Evening, Nov. 30, 1807.
(We thank this Gentleman for the above scientific communication, which evinces more knowledge of the subject than any we have yet seen, even in the London papers, and shall with much pleasure publish any thing further that he may be inclined to offer. An extra number of papers will be printed, to afford our Subscribers an opportunity of gratifying their friends in other countries.)

Printed By T. Bond, No. 20, Brick Dam, Stabroek.

[Supplement cited internally, but no Supplement on microfilm]


Created: 29 April 2005   Last modified:     Creator: Wilmer, John Lance    Maintainer: Rodney Van Cooten
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